My sunday...

Posted by zchelle

Been sick for 2 days now. I got colds, cough, fever and headache. Damn sickness! Can't go out and enjoy. Body weakness causes me a lot of trouble coz I always lie in my bed! I cannot write anymore... The letters are blurry...

Enrollment Day

Posted by zchelle

Its time to enroll myself! Long lines again, seeing same people... the hot weather. Wew! I'm imagining now! Hopefully I'll finish today. I hope so but i doubt. Well, I have no choice but to go to school now! Till here... Hope all of you are okay! Chao! ^_^

Stages of Chronic Renal Failure

Posted by zchelle

Stage 1 : Reduced Renal Reserve, characterized by a 40% to 75% loss of nephron function. The patient usually does not have symptoms because the remaining nephrons are able to carry out the normal functions of the kidney.

Stage 2 : Renal Insufficiency occurs when 75% tp 90% of nephron functionis lost. At this point, the serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen rise, the kidney loses its ability to concentrate urine and anemia develops.

Stage 3 : End-stage Renal Disease, the final stage of chronic renal failure occurs when there is less than 10% nephron fuction ramaining.

Note: Nephron is the functional unit of the kidney

Peritoneal Dialysis

Posted by zchelle

The purpose of the peritoneal dialysis is to remove toxic substances and metabolic wastes and to re-establish normal fluid and electrolyte balance. Peritonral dialysis may be the treatment of choice for patients with renal failure who are unable or unwilling to undergo hemodialysis or renal transplant.

Roll Over Test

Posted by zchelle

Roller over test is used to evaluate if you are at risk for developing preeclampsia. This is a procedure performed by a nurse or if you know how to take a blood pressure, you do this.
1. Place the client in supine position and take the blood pressure.
2. Place the client in left side lying position and take the blood pressure.
3. Then place the client again in supine position and immediately take the blood pressure.
4. Any increase in systolic pressure to 20 mmHg, client is at risk for preeclampsia


Posted by zchelle

Pre-eclampsia is a hypertensive disorders complicating pregnancies are common and form one of the deadly triad, along with hemorrhage and infection.

Symptoms of Pregnancy Induced HPN
1. Gestational Hypertension is characterized by a BP of 140/90 or systolic pressure elevated 30 mmHg or diastolic pressure elevated 15 mmHg above.
2. Mild Preeclampsia - BP 140/90; proteinuria of 1-2+ on a random sample; 2lbs/wk weight gain in 2nd trimester and 1 lb/wk weight gain in 3rd trimester.
3. Severe Preeclampsia - BP 160/110; proteinuria 3-4+ on a random sample.
4. Eclampsia, there is seizure or coma accompanied by signs and symptoms of preeclampsia
These signs will lead to eclampsia... pls be aware of these manifestation
1. BP >160
2. proteinuria 3+ 4+
3. Blurring of vision
4. Right upper quadrant.

Liver Cirrhosis

Posted by zchelle

Liver Cirrhosis is an irreversible damage characterized by scarring, or fibrosis and widespread formation of nodules in the liver.
Types of Cirrhosis According to its Major Cause

1. Alcoholic/Laennec's Cirrhosis is caused by chronic alcohol intake.

2. Biliary Cirrhosis is due to an intrahepatic block that obstructs the excretion of bile or may occur secondary to obstruction of the bile ducts.

Cranial Nerves

Posted by zchelle

Inorder for you to recall the 12 cranial nerves just remember the demonics!

Oh, Oh, Oh, To Touch And Feel A Girls Vagina Ah Heaven.

Cranial Nerves:

I - Olfactory (Oh)
II - Optic (Oh)
III - Oculomotor (Oh)
IV - Trochlear ( To)
V - Trigeminal (Touch)
VI - Abducens (And)
VII - Facial (Feel)
VIII - Acoustic (A)
IX - Glossopharyngeal (Girls)
X - Vagus (Vagina)
XI - Accesory (Ah)
XII - Hypoglossal (Heaven)

Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA)

Posted by zchelle

A stroke also called "CVA" or brain attack is a sudden interruption in the blood flow in the brain. It can be due to either a blockage or a rupture in blood vessel in or leading to the brain.

Types of Stroke

1. Ischemic Stroke occurs when an artery to the brain is being blocked.
a. Thrombotic occurs when damage arteries become blocked by the formation of blood clot with in the brain

b. Embolic Stroke caused by a clot with in an artery, but in this case the clot/ emboli was formed somewhere other that brain itself.
2. Hemorragic Stroke occurs when a blood vessel burst inside the brain.

Insulin Therapy

Posted by zchelle

1. Use standard insulin syringe mark in insulin units.
2. Absorption is fastest in the abdomen, followed by deltoid, thigh and buttocks.
3. Inject 30 minutes before meals.
4. Eating a few minutes after or before injecting short acting insulin reduces the ability of insulin to prevent rapid rises in blood glucose after meals and may increase the risk for hypoglycemia.
5. Administer the right amount at the right time.
6. No other medication

Diabetes Mellitus

Posted by zchelle

What is Diabetes Mellitus (DM)? DM is characterized by destruction of the pancreatic beta cells. This cells are responsible for the production of insulin. In simple definition Diabetes is an increase in blood sugar level. The cardinal signs of DM are polyuria, polydipsia and polyphagia.